Welded branches are designed to facilitate transverse coupling with ASME B36.10 pipe. Welded branches, also known as branch connections, connect a secondary pipe called a branch to a main pipe, which can have different dimensions (diameter and thickness) from the branch. They can be engaged with any degree of rotation, orientation, and inclination.
These branch connections are also referred to as shut-off connections and help distribute fluid from the main header pipe in multiple directions, replacing the more common tee pieces.
There are four types of branches that are generally used: STUB-IN, STUB-ON, OUTLET, or INLET branch connections. The first two are normal pieces of pipe, rounded and welded internally or externally to the line pipe, while the Olet, in addition to being machine-worked forgings, have a greater excess thickness which serves as reinforcement for the branch and are also defined as self-forged fittings – strengthened.
The size of the branch reinforcement is calculated based on the size of the main pipe, the fluid pressure, and the design temperature. The reinforced, socket welded, butt welded, or threaded branches are built in accordance with the following standards:
- MSS SP 97
- ASME I, ASME V, ASME VIII, ASME B31.1, ASME B31.3 and calculations verified by burst tests or finite element calculations.
The sectors of use can be hydraulic systems, chemical plants, petrochemical plants, and energy production plants.